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THE PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION PDF

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The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and .. ratification of this Constitution, one-half of the seats allocated to party-list . do ordain and promulgate this Constitution. ARTICLE I. NATIONAL TERRITORY. The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands. SUMMARY / REVIEWER OF THE PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION. Jocelyn Frago. INTRODUCTION TO POLITICAL SCIENCE 4. Social Contract Theory.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Jocelyn Frago. Social Contract Theory - states must have been formed by deliberate and voluntary compact among the people to form a society and organize a government. Political Theory - Entire body of doctrines relating to the energy, form, behavior and purpose of the state are dealt in the study of this subject. As to number of persons exercising sovereign powers: Goal in the Study of Political Science 1.

The State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nation-building. The State shall ensure the autonomy of local governments. Substantive Due Process - Law requires that the law in question affecting life, liberty or property be a valid law.

Life - means something more than mere animal existence. The State shall maintain honesty and integrity in the public service and take positive alike, under like circumstances and conditions both in the privileges conferred and liabilities and effective measures against graft and corruption. Search warrant — an order of writing issued in the name of the people of the Philippines, signed by 2.

Press covers every sort of publication. Freedom of expression not Absolute Warrant of arrest — to arrest a person designated and to take him into custody in order that he may 1. Subject to regulation by the State - it is always subject to some regulation by the State in order be bound to answer for the commission of an offense.

Subject one to liability when abused - the following may be penalized: Scope of the Protection: Persons - the protection applies to everybody.

Papers and effects - include sealed letters and packages in the mail which may be opened and Right of Assembly and Right of Petition examined only in pursuance of a valid search warrant. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free judge of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce exercise thereof. Religion - includes all forms of belief in the existence of superior beings exercising power over human beings. When search and seizure may be made without warrant 1.

Where there is consent and waiver. Section 6: The liberty of abode and travel 2. Where such is an incident to a lawful arrest Liberty of Abode and Travel - right of a person to have his home in whatever place chosen by him 3. In the case of contraband or forfeited goods being transported by ship, automobile, or other and thereafter to change it at will, and to go where he pleases without interference from any source. As an incident of inspection, supervision and regulation in the exercise of police power.

Routinary searches usually made at the border or at ports of entry in the interest of national person whose liberty of abode is violated may petition for a writ of habeas corpus against another security.

The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. When in his presence, the person to be arrested has committed or attempting to commit an Writ of Habeas Data - a judicial remedy available to any individual whose right to privacy in life, offense. When an offense has in fact just been committed and he has personal knowledge of facts Purpose of Writ - by way of regulating the processing of personal information or data about him.

The right of the people, to form unions, associations, or societies not contrary to law. The right to form an association - is the freedom to organize or to be a member of any group or association, union or society and to adopt the rules which the members judge most appropriate to Section 3: Right of privacy — right to be left alone achieve their purpose. Grants government employees to form labor unions. Section 4: No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press Section 9: Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation.

Meaning of Freedom of speech, expression and of the press Also known as freedom of expression, implies the right to freely utter and publish whatever Inherent Powers of Government one pleases without previous restraint, and to be protected against any responsibility for so doing as Totality of governmental power, contains three great powers: It also includes the right to circulate what is published.

Power of Eminent Domain - power of the state to take private property for public use upon paying the owner just compensation. Scope of terms of Speech, expression and press 2.

Police Power - power of the state to enact laws and regulations in relation to person and property 1. Speech and expression includes any form of oral utterances as may promote public health, public morals, public safety, and general welfare of the people.

Power of Taxation - power of the state to impose charge or burden upon persons, property, or Section Rights of Person under investigation Illustrations of Police Power 1. Public health - those regulating the medical profession 2.

Public Morals - those punishing vagrancy and prostitution, prohibiting gambling, etc. Public Safety - eg. General welfare and Convenience - those requiring compulsory registration of lands, authorizing free will the removal of billboard offensive to sight, etc.

Right to bail, except those charged with reclusion perpetua. Bail - security required by a court and given for the provisional or temporary release of a person who is in the custody of the law.

No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. Obligation of Contract - is the law or duty which binds the parties to perform their agreement Purpose and form of Bail: Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance.

The right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have a counsel death. Right against being held in secret, incommunicado, or similar forms of solitary detention. Right to presumption of innocence 8. Right to be heard by himself and counsel Section No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law. Right to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him.

Right to have a speedy, impartial trial. Right to due process of law Right to meet the witnesses face to face 1. Due process in its procedural aspect - a person cannot be held to answer without due process Right to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of of law.

Right against self-incrimination - Tried before a competent court ex. Court having jurisdiction Right against detention by reason of political beliefs and aspirations - Given fair and impartial trial Right against cruel, degrading or inhuman punishment.

Observance of fundamental fairness Right against double jeopardy. Right to presumptions of innocence Reasons for Constitutional Safeguards In all criminal prosecutions, the accused is presumed innocent until the contrary is proved. A criminal case, an unequal contest - it is of necessity, unequal contest because the parties are of unequal strength.

The Rules of Court provides: In all criminal prosecution, the defendant shall be entitled to be present and defend in person Right to adequate legal assistance - the State has a duty to provide free and legal assistance to and by counsel at every stage of the proceedings.

After a plea of not guilty, the accused is entitled to 2 days to prepare for trial unless the court. For Basis: Before arraignment, the court shall inform him of his right to counsel and shall ask him if he strongest temptation to commit perjury. Freedom from political belief Right to be informed of the cause and nature of the accusations against him: Remedy of accused whose rights is violated - this requirement of notice is indispensable in as during Martial law.

Suspension of privilege of writ of habeas corpus even after lifting of Martial law 3. Prohibition a guarantee against having a prisoners of conscience Right to have a speedy, impartial and public trial 1. Speedy trial - one that can be has as soon as possible, after a person is indicted and within such Involuntary servitude - denotes a condition of enforced, compulsory service of one to another.

It time as the prosecution with reasonable diligence, could prepare for it. Right to confrontation of witnesses Basis and purpose of the prohibition: The accused person has the right to confront witness face to face.

Reasons are: The prohibition is grounded on the value accorded to human dignity in a democratic and free 1.

Cross-examination of witness by the accused society. The purpose is to maintain a system of completely free and voluntary labor. Trials in the absence of the accused Exceptions to the Prohibition: Conditions on Trial In the absence of the Accused: Reason for rule - an accused cannot, by simply escaping, thwart his prosecution and possibly 4.

To exceptional services such as military and naval enlistment eventual conviction provided only that the three conditions above are present.

To exercise by parents their authority to require their children to perform reasonable amount of work Section The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except when the 6. When there is a proper exercise of the police power of the State. May be suspended by the president incase only if invasion or rebellion when public safety requires it.

To inquire into all manner of involuntary restraint or detention as distinguished the sound discretion of the court, if it keeps within the limit of the Statute, it cannot be held from voluntary and to relieve a person therefrom if such restraint is found illegal. Writ - is the order from the court requiring a person detaining another to show cause for detention Right against cruel, degrading, or inhuman punishment - This right can only be invoked after conviction for a crime.

Writ of Amparo - This special writ prohibits respondents from using the defense of simple denial. Can be invoked by the families of victims of extrajudicial killings, and enforced disappearances Section No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax. Debt - any liability to pay money arising out of a contract, express or implied. Refers to Civil or contractual debt or one not arising from a criminal offense.

All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all judicial, Estafa - is a criminal offense where you a person van be imprisoned for non payment of debt quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. Right against Self incrimination - no person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself which may expose him to criminal liability Right against double jeopardy - When a person is charged with an offense, and the case is terminated either by acquittal or conviction, the latter cannot again be charged of the same or identical offense.

Classes of Double Jeopardy Naturalization - act of formally adapting a foreigner into the political body of the state and clothing 1. For the same offense - the protection is against double jeopardy for the same offense and not him with the rights and privileges of citizenship.

For the same act - double jeopardy of punishment for the same act. By judgment of the court - the foreigner who wants to become a Filipino must apply for Section No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted. Naturalization with the proper Regional Trial Court. By direct act of Congress - our law making body simply enacts an act directly conferring Ex post Facto Law - An ex post facto law is one which operating retrospectively: Makes an act done before the passage of a law; 3.

By administrative proceedings - under R. Alters the legal rules of evidence, and receives less testimony from what the law required at the Section 2: Philippine citizenship time of the commission of the offense, in order to convict the offender. Natural born citizen: Citizen at the time of adoption of the new Constitution - refer to those who are considered their advantage.

Citizen through election - refers to those born on Filipino mothers before Jan. Naturalized citizens - refers to those who were originally citizens of another country but who, by an intervening act naturalization , have acquired new citizenship in a different country. Section 1: The following are citizens of the Philippines: Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution; Section 3: Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law.

Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines; 3. Those born before January 17, , of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon Loss of citizenship reaching the age of majority; and 1. Voluntarily - it is called expatriation 4. Alien - is a citizen of a country who is residing on or passing through another country. By direct act of the Congress of the Philippines. Repatriation - is effected by merely taking the necessary oath of allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines and registering the same in the proper civil registry.

The children follow Section 4: Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship, unless they to the citizenship of the parent. The Philippines uses this rule. The U. The person become the citizen where he is born irrespective of the citizenship of the parents. Effects of marriage of citizen to an alien 2.

81011330-Textbook-on-the-Philippine-Constitution (1).pdf

A political right - in the sense of a right conferred by the Constitution. Scope of Suffrage: Section 5: Dual allegiance of citizens shall be dealt with by law.

Plebiscite - name given to vote of the people expressing their choice for or against a proposed Dual allegiance - refers to the continued allegiance of naturalized nationals to their mother country law even after they have acquired Filipino Citizenship. Referendum - submission of a law or part thereof passed by the national or local legislative body 4.

Initiative - process whereby the people directly propose and enact law. Dual Citizenship - refers to the possession of two citizenships by an individual, that of his original 5. Have resided in the Philippines for at least 1 year and in the place wherein he proposes to vote - absolute and permanent allegiance to his government at least six months preceding the election. Insane or incompetent person declared by a competent authority. The Congress secure the secrecy and sanctity of the ballot.

The legislative power shall be vested in the Congress of the Philippines - Active concern with affairs of the government Legislative power - authority under the constitution to make laws and subsequently, when the need - Need for civic courage and pride or sense of civic values arises, to alter and repeal them.

History of Philippine Constitutions | Virtue | Philippines

Plenary or General - a grant of legislative power means the grant of all legislative power for all - Duty to be a useful and productive member of the society purposes of civil government.

Implied Power - they are those essential or necessary to the effective exercise of the powers expressly granted. Like the power to conduct inquiry and investigation in aid of legislation to Nature of Suffrage: A mere privilege - not a natural right of the citizen but merely a privilege to be given or withheld 4.

Inherent Power - powers which are possessed and can be exercised by every government by the law making power subject to constitutional limitations.

Presidential System - power of the government are divided into 3 classes: Executive, legislative - resident thereof for a period of not less than one year immediately preceding the day of the and Judicial. Parliamentary System - there is a fusion rather that a separation of the two classes: Policy making and Policy Executing.

Prime minister is the head of government.

The Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected; 3. French presidential - parliamentary system-variant of two types of government 1. For a term of three years which shall begin, unless otherwise provided by law, at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following their election. Principle of check and balance - Constitutional provisions authorize a considerable amount of 2.

No Member of the House of Representatives shall serve for more than three consecutive terms. Section 2. Section 8: Regular election of the Senators and the Members of the House of Representatives shall be held on the second Monday of May. Section 3. No person shall be a Senator unless: In case of vacancy in the Senate or in the House of Representatives: Regular Election - held on the 2nd Monday of May. Compensation of members of Constitutional Commissions Appointment and removal of officials and employees Other common features Rules of procedure Rendition of decision and judicial review Additional functions under the law Composition of the Civil Service Commission Qualifications ofmembers Appointment and terms of office Rotational scheme of appointment Reasons for creation of the Commission Meaning of Civit Service Scope of the Civil Service Constitutional classification of positions in the Civil Service The merit system Non-competitive positions Guarantee of security of tenure Meaning of"for cause provided by law" Abolition of position Prohibition against electioneering and other partisan political campaign Meaning of electioneering or partisan political campaign Activities not covered Right of government employees to self-organization Right of government employees to strike Protection oftemporttry employees Powers and of the Commission Importance of a permanent civil service Purpose of providi ng a civil service system.

Basic requisites of a civil service system Oath to dt! Standardization of compensation I neligibility for appoint ment of defeated candidate in an election Ineligibility for appointment of elective official s Prohibition hol ding more than one position by appoin tive officials Prohibition agai ns t additional, double, or indirect compensation E"c 2ptions to the prohibition Prohibition again,-.

Composition of the Commission on Elections Qualifications of members Purpose of the Commission Powers and functions Ofthe Commission Finality of decisions Rationale of r egistration of political parties Hearing of election cases Regul ation of public utili ties and media Pardon, etc.

Meaning of parole Meaning of suspension of se ntence Meani ng of pol itical party Fr ee and open party system.. Membership f political pnrties, etc. Election per iod Campaign period Protection against harassment and discrimination AutomaLic of appropriations Composition of the Commiss: Purpose of the Commi: PowerH and functions of the Commission Concept of examination, auditing, and settlement of accounts Exemption of any government entity or its subsidiary Submission of report to t he President and Congress Import ance oflocal governments Territorial and poli tical s ubdivisions of the Philippines..

Dual status of local governments Meani ng of! Meaning of decentralization Reasons for grant ing local autonomy Enactment oflocal government code Mechanisms of r ecall , i nitiati ve, and referendum Supervi sor y power of Pr esident over local governments Supervisory power with r espect to component uni t " Taxi ng power of local government s constitutionally granted Automatic release of share of national taxes Share in proceeds of uti lization and development of national wealth Term of office of local offic: Sectoral representation in local legislative bodies..

Creation, division, merger, etc. Creation of special metropolitan political subdivisions Component cities and highly urbanized cities Grouping of local government units Regional development councils or other similar bodies Creation of regions Composition and condition for creation of autonomous regions Residual powers vested in the National Government Enactment and ratification of an organic act for each autonomous region Time frame for the passage of organic..

Legislative powers of autonomous regions.. Preservation of peace and order within the regions. Meani ng of public office and public officer Nature of public office Meaning of officer and employee Public oftice, a public trust Accountability to the people Importance of maintaining public trust in public officers Meani ng and nature of impeachment Purpose of impeachment Officials removable by impeachment Removal of other officials Grounds for impeachment Power to initiate and try impeachment vested in Congress Procedure in impeachment cases Penalty in impeachment cases Effect of resignation Rules on impeachment Office of the Ombudsman to be known as Tanodbayan Rationale for creation of the two bodies Powers, functions, and duties of the Ombudsman Right of the State to recover ill-gotten wealth Prohibition against grant ofloan, guaranty or other form of financial accommodation Declaration of assets, liabilities and net worth Duty of allegiance to the State and the Constitution Concept of national economy and patrimony Three-fold goals of the national economy Strategies to accomplish goals Guidelines in the development of the national economy Promotion of industrialization and full employment Protection of Filipino enterprises against unfair foreign competjtion and trade practices State ownership of natural resources Objectives of policy on natura] resources Alienation of agricultural lands of the public domain Exploration, development and utilization of natural resou: Period of agreement for exploration, etc.

Agreement for exploration, etc. Protection of marine wealth Small-scale utilization of natural resources by Filipinos to be allowed. Technical or financial assistance agreements with foreign-owned corporations Classification of lands of the public domain Determination of size of landholdings and conditions therefor Maximum size of landholdings Grant, now a mode for the aequisition of public lands Congress to determine specific limits of forest lands and national parks Protection of rights of indigenous cultural communities to their ancestral lands Use of property bears a social function Right to own, Cl: Acquisition of pri vate lands Prohibi tion against alien landholding Consequence of violation of prohibition Right of natural-born citizens who have lost their citizenship to acquire pri vate lands Independent t.

Filipinization of ce-rtai n areas of investments Higher percentage of Filipino ownership Meaning of franchise.. Meaning of-public utility.. Limitations upon grant of fra nchi se, etc. Purpose oflimiti ng period of franchise Equity participation in public utilities Foreign par tici pation in any public utility..

Adoption of ''Filipino First" policy.. Promotion of trade policy that serves t he general welfare Promotion of national talent pool of Filipinos Regulation of technology trans fer Practice of all professions limited t o Fili pino!

Agency to promot. Creation of government-owned or -controlled corp0l'at1ons Temporary take-over or- direction of private busim! Meaning of monopoly Regulatiun or prohibition of private monopolies Meaning of restraint of trade Meaning of competition S93 5.

Meaning of unfair competition Central monetary authority to be established Rules with respect to foreign loam; Concept of social justice Duty of State to prc,motc social justice Beneficiary of social justice policy Social justice and property rights Social justice through promotion of equality of opportunity Constitut ional provisions on social j ustice Prot ect ion to labor Rights of workers Principle of shared respon s ibility Methods for resolving labor Roci procal rights of labor and enterprises Undertaking an agrar ian r eform pr ogram Planning, organi1.

Dis pos ition of other natural r esources and of public agr icul tural es tate:: Resettlement of landless farmers and Rights of subsistence fisher me n and fishworkerf-! Inves t ment incen tives to landowners Protection of working women Role and righto of people's organizations Obligatlons impo: The Commission on Human Rights Reasons for creation nf t. Concept of education Ways for acquiring education Right of all to quality education Duty of the State to protect and promote right to quality educat.

Complete, adequate, Hnd integrated system of educat. System of education t o be relevant to the needs of the people and society System of a free publ ic education to be estabiished and maintained Natural right and duty of parcnLli to rear their children Righ t oft. System of scholan;hip grants, etc. Non-formal, i nformal, and indigcnom; learning ;;ysterr. Training in civie: Study of Constitution to be part of school curricula Educational ai ms of schools Importance of values education Role of other sectors in the education of the youth Optional reli gious instruction in public elementary and high schools to be all owed Complementa ry roles of public and private educational institutions recognized Ownership, control and administration of educational ins ti t ut ions by Fi lipino t-'itizcns Educational instit ut ions est abli shed exclusively for aliens pr ohibited Exemption from taxes and duties Institutions of hi gher!

Importance of guarantee of academic freedom Guarantee not academic licens e Right of every citizen to select a profession or of study. Right of teachers t o professional advancement Right of non-teaching academic and non-academic per sonnel State to assign the highest budget ary priority to education Duty of State to improve lot of t eachers Concept of language Importance of language National language is Filipino..

Pilipino not immediately abrogated Need for a oHtionallanguage.. Use of Filipino as a medium of offici al communica tion and language of instruction Official languages ofthe Philippines Need for communication skills i n English Auxiliary offi cial languages.. Difference bet ween official language and national language Constitution ofliciall y promulgated in Filipino and English Translation and interpretation National language to be Concept of science and technology Science and technology essential for national development and progress.

History of Philippine Constitutions

Promotion of science and t echnology Science and technology education and training Right to inventions, etc.

Conceptofart sand culture Importance of culture Promotion of culture Preservation, enrichment, and dynamic evolution of a Filipino national culture Cultural trea:: Rights of indigenous cult ural communities Equal access to cultural opportunities Concept of sports Promotion of s port;, Concept of family The Filipino family, the fonr.

Sphere of law on fan1ily Duty of State to defend family right;; Duty to ca! The Philippine Flag Adoption or a new name country, a national anthem, or a naLional Pri neip le of mnH;u abih ty of the State. Bases of the principle;;; When suits against the State Waiver of immunity t admi! The citi. Assistance to veterans. Protection of cons umers Filipino capability in ancl informati on Ownership and management. Regul ation of the advertisi ng indu Ownership and munagement of a clverti: CTION 12 1.

Creation of consultative body ror indigcnou;; cultllra l ,. CTION 1 1. Amendment and r evision distinguished Importance of the a mending proeedurP Methods hy which a mendments or revi.: Meaning of constitutional con vent ion.. Cons titution drafted by an appointive Con.: Rati5ca t. Meaning and of t ransitory pr ovisions CTION 2 1.

Term of office of Hevrt: All exist. Transitory legislative power of President Appointment of nominee:: Metropolitan Authority may be eon: Sub-provinces to continue to Hnd operate Adoption of a p! Wl1erc applicable period for rendi tion of judicial deci: Incumbent members of the Constitutional to continue in office An nual of constit. Incr ease of salary scales of olht!

Disposition of properties, rec: Reversion to State of illegally ucq p11b! Expropriation of idh! Compliance hy adYertising compa nies with minimum Filipino ownership requirement Private armies and other armed groups t. Requirements for allowing foreign military base!! Sequestered or frozen properties The word "political" is derived from the Greek word polis, meaning a city, or what today would be the equivalent of sovereign state; the word "science" comes from the Latin word "to know.

Political science is a very field. Its curriculum is almost certain to include courses in political theory, public law, and public admin- istration as well as in various monl specialized subjects.: As used above, the term is equivalent to "nation" or "country," for E-!

In contradistinction to the rules of private law, which govern the among individuals, public law is so specialized that separate courses are offered in each of its subdivisions - constitutional la. As t he compleY. Thus , we find many administr ative agencies exercis - ing quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial power s , i. VI, Sec. VIII, Sec. Administr ative law, alr eady r eferred to, nlso scope of any broad study of public administ r ation.

No precise and defi nitive bouudal"ies can be placed around a subject as comprehensi ve as poli tical science. Today, these fields are j ointly concerned with t he fact that economic condi - tions affect the organization, development, and activities of states, which in turn modify or even pr escribe economic conditions.

The political scientis t regul arly adopts an "economic approach" when seeking to inter pret such matter s as "public financial policies'' and government r egulation of business. The Study of Political Science Geography. One of the many topics which the political scientist handles from a "psychological approach" is that of public opinion, pressure groups, and propaganda. These concepts arc the underlying forces in the framing of constitutions and laws. The political scienti st considers the branch of called ethics, too, when he contempl ates the moral background of proposed changes in soc.

To maintain a fu11 understanding of the facts of politkal life, 6 Sce Jacobsen and Lipman, note 4, op. Again, t hey may be of immense practical use t o individuals who seek to the state in which they live. I Why s hould t he university or college student st udy political What good will i t do hi m or her, in l ater life'!

Are political s cience courses ''practi cal" i. The preparation of students for careers in politics, law, t eachi ng.

Most polit ical science courses should be viewed as essential parts ofl iber"' l education, bearing no materi- ahstic pr ice tag and promising no j ob s ecurit y. Such shop-worn adjectives as "practical" and "cultural" have no relevance here. I ntelligent, responsi- ble cit izens hip can save democracy; ignorance and negligence can lose it. Democracy has practical advant ages which no one can appraise in mon- etary terms. Just how much is freedom worth?

Study, infor mation, a nd understandi ng of t he complexities of modern government and politics are necessary as et ernal vigilance. He must algo be citizen who knows the answers. A stale is a c: The Philippines is a state. Eiements of state. The modern state has four 4 essential elements. They are: There is no requirement as to the number of people that should compose a state.

But it should be neither too small nor too latge: Its estimated citizens, mainly clerics and some Swiss guards, are ruled by the Pope. China is the largest state in point of population placed at more than one billion.

The Philippines is now estimated to have a population of about 82,,, 16 composed mostly of Malays and Chinese; 1 'Rodec, Anderson, and Christ. Gar11er, p,,Jitical and Gtw't. The island kingdom of Tonga located in the western South Pacific Ocean. It may now he about 85 million. Thus, the domain of the state may be described as terrestrial, fl uvial, maritiri1e, and C! It would flt in Rizal Park in Manila. The Republic of Nauru h as an area of about eight 8 square miles or 20 square kilometers.

Upon election, the President ceased to be a member of the National Assembly. During his term, the President was not allowed to be a member of a political party or hold any other office. Executive power was exercised by the Prime Minister who was also elected from the Members of the National Assembly. The Prime Minister was the head of government and Commander-in- Chief of the armed forces.

This constitution was subsequently amended three times. The amendments provide, among other things, for the replacement of the National Assembly by the Batasang Pambansa. It also states that the incumbent President of the Philippines shall be the Prime Minister, and shall continue to exercise legislative powers until Martial Law has been lifted. Amendments were done again in which re-established a parliamentary form of government with a president elected by direct vote of the people.

Presidential Proclamation No. However, it is really a large set of amendments which superseded and abolished certain provisions from the constitution.

It granted the President certain powers to remove officials from office, reorganize the government and hold a new constitutional convention to draft a new constitution. Marcos from office, the new President, Corazon C. Aquino issued Proclamation No. Ang Konstitusyon ng Republika ng Pilipinas , ratified on February 2, , is the fourth fundamental law to govern the Philippines since it became independent on July 4, First, the Constitution, which became fully operational after the Inauguration of the Third Philippine Republic.

Second, the Constitution, which was promulgated during Martial Law and became fully operational only after the lifting of Martial Law in Aquino after the successful People Power Revolution in It provides that the Supreme Council, vested with the supreme power of government, shall conduct foreign relations, war, the interior, and the treasury.

It provides for a parliamentary form of government, but the President, and not a Prime Minister, acts as the head of government.

Legislative power is exercised by the Assembly of Representatives of the Nation, and judicial power is lodge in a Supreme Court. The Constitution of the Philippines, ratified on May 17, , establishes the Commonwealth of the Philippines, defining its powers, composition and organization as it function as the Government of the Philippine Islands. It is based on the principle of separation of powers among the three branches of government. Executive power is vested in the President and shall serve for a single-six year term.

Legislative power is vested in a unicameral National Assembly, and judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court. It also provides that upon proclamation of Philippine Independence, the Commonwealth of the Philippines shall be known as the Republic of the Philippines.

The Amendment -- The amendments liberalized all laws and made few changes on the economic provisions of the Tydings-Mcduffie Law. The Amendments -- The amendments, by virtue of Resolution No. The amendment also provides for the creation of a Commission on Elections. The Amendment -- known as the Parity Amendment, gave Americans equal rights with Filipinos in the exploitation of Philippine Natural resources.

It is based on the system of separation of powers among the executive, legislative, and the judiciary. It served as a temporary constitution, for it stipulated that one year after the end of the World War II, it shall be replaced by a new constitution. The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, or Ang Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas, ratified by the Citizens Assemblies on January 17, , provides for a shift from a presidential form of government to a parliamentary system.

The President serves as a symbolic head of State, executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister with the assistance of the Cabinet, and legislative power is vested in a unicameral National Assembly. The Constitution as amended amended in and provides for a semi-parliamentary form of government, where the President, no longer acts as a symbolic head, but acts as the head of state and the chief executive.

The Office of the President has been restored to its original status under the Constitution. Legislative power is vested in a unicameral Batasang Pambansa. Aquino on March 25, , was a provisional constitution after a successful People Power Revolution. Under the Freedom Constitution, executive and legislative powers are exercised by the President, and shall continue to exercise legislative powers until a legislature is elected and convened under a new Constitution.

Furthermore, the President is mandated to convene a Constitutional Commission tasked to draft a new charter.

IZETTA from Michigan
I fancy exploring ePub and PDF books gladly . Also read my other articles. I have always been a very creative person and find it relaxing to indulge in traditional climbing.