SAM HARRIS WILL BOOK
Islam and the Future of Tolerance A Dialogue · Waking Up A Guide to Spirituality Without Religion · Lying · Free Will · The Moral Landscape How Science Can. "In this elegant and provocative book, Sam Harris demonstrates—with great intellectual ferocity and panache—that free will is an inherently flawed and. This is a book summary of Free Will by Sam Harris. Read this Free Will summary to review key ideas and lessons from the book.
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Free Will is a book by American neuroscientist and author Sam Harris. Harris argues that the truth about the human mind does not undermine morality or. I am happy to now offer my final thoughts on the subject in the form of a short book, Free Will, that can be read in a single sitting. The question of. In this enlightening book, Sam Harris argues that this truth about the human mind If he is right, the book will radically change the way we view ourselves as.
I have since received hundreds of questions and comments from readers and learned just where the sticking points were in my original arguments. I am happy to now offer my final thoughts on the subject in the form of a short book, Free Will , that can be read in a single sitting. The question of free will touches nearly everything we care about. Morality, law, politics, religion, public policy, intimate relationships, feelings of guilt and personal accomplishment—most of what is distinctly human about our lives seems to depend upon our viewing one another as autonomous persons, capable of free choice. If the scientific community were to declare free will an illusion, it would precipitate a culture war far more belligerent than the one that has been waged on the subject of evolution. Without free will, sinners and criminals would be nothing more than poorly calibrated clockwork, and any conception of justice that emphasized punishing them rather than deterring, rehabilitating, or merely containing them would appear utterly incongruous.
Both of these assumptions are false.
Book Summary: Free Will by Sam Harris
Harris prosecutes his orderly case by explaining what he sees as the illogic of our belief in free will, and the recent findings that have undermined that belief. Probably the most influential among these discoveries were the results of the famous EEG experiments conducted by the physiologist Benjamin Libet and others in the early s. They showed that the brain makes decisions before consciousness becomes aware of them.
Like almost all other thinkers who have publicly rejected the traditional model of conscious will, Harris claims that doing so does not entail the end of morality, the idea of criminality and codes of ethical behavior. He even allows for the possible usefulness of public moral condemnation: View all New York Times newsletters.
Even though Harris assures us that civilized society can survive and might even improve with the abandonment of the concept of conscious agency, it would ultimately affect everything — all of our doings and sayings and thoughts, especially in ordinary sociomoral circumstances.
Of course, questions persist. What, after the dismantling of free will, is consciousness?
Just some kind of afflatus given off by three pounds of wetware? It may not tell us what to do, but it does tell us what what we do means — oh, and what beauty is. I bet he does. Finally, what happens to traditional qualities of character like courage, villainy, leadership? Sam Harris. Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: Articles with short description All stub articles.
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The Illusion of Free Will
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Compulsion involves causation and Harris seems to assume that all explanation is causal explanation:. Thus, if Harris had a reason for getting a drink of water e.
This is teleological determinism , which is different from causal determinism. And when an agent is free to choose because he possesses reasons for alternative courses of action, the choice that he makes is explained teleologically, not causally.
It is also important to make clear that the locus of freedom is choice. Consider the following argument against human freedom by Harris:.
Is Sam Harris Right About Free Will?: A Book Review
There is not a person on earth who chose his genome, or the country of his birth, or the political and economic conditions that prevailed at moments crucial to his progress. Even if you have struggled to make the most of what nature gave you, you must still admit that your ability and inclination to struggle is part of your inheritance. How much credit does a person deserve for not being lazy? None at all. Laziness, like diligence, is a neurological condition But it simply does not follow from this fact that the choices that are made for the reasons provided by those conditions are themselves determined.
It is thoroughly consistent to affirm that reason R for which choice C is made is determined, while maintaining that C itself is undetermined. But choices are not determined causally or teleologically and because the freedom involved in your making choices is not at all undermined by the fact that the reasons for which you choose are causally determined, you do not have to have any, let alone complete, control over those factors.
Somewhat amusingly, Harris ends Free Will by praising his wife, Annaka Harris, for her contributions to helping Free Will see the light of day. One thing we know for sure is that if Harris is right, his wife is no self-made woman. After all, she could not have done anything other than what she did because she was causally determined to do all that she did.
He tells the reader that losing the sense of free will has increased his sense of compassion and forgiveness toward others. One would have thought that this loss would have similarly undermined his motivation to praise others who have helped him because he now understands that they were causally determined to provide that help.
She no more deserves praise than the moral wrongdoer deserves blame and punishment With his discussion of desert at the end of Free Will , Harris ends where he began: Given that Harris believes they strike most of us as abhorrent, it is appropriate to ask why our belief in free will is illusory.
Another lab extended this work using functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI: They reported which letter was visible at the moment they decided to press one button or the other. One fact now seems indisputable: Some moments before you are aware of what you will do next—a time in which you subjectively appear to have complete freedom to behave however you please—your brain has already determined what you will do.
Libet had to depend upon the reports verbal or otherwise of his subjects in order to learn about the time at which they consciously decided to move their fingers. One would assume so. It is purposefully choosing to misrepresent the way things are in order to mislead someone else. But if one is free to choose purposefully to misrepresent what is the case, one is also free to choose purposefully to convey the truth. Libet assumed that his subjects were freely choosing to tell him the truth for the purpose, say, of assisting him with his experiment about when they consciously decided to move their fingers.
Libet and Harris might respond that the subjects did not freely choose to tell the truth on each run of the experiment. They simply deterministically intended to tell the truth in the way that I described earlier in this review e.
If so, two further points are relevant. First, deterministically intending to tell the truth for a purpose is itself, as I also pointed out earlier, a teleological and not a causal notion.
Second, appealing to determined intentions to tell the truth during the experiment presupposes in this case that the subjects made a choice to tell the truth before they participated in the running of the experiment. Someone like Harris might deny that the subjects were free at any point to choose for a purpose.
However, Libet would not want to embrace this position. But if they were consciously free to choose to do this, why were they not consciously free at some earlier point to choose to make true or false reports?
At this juncture, it is relevant to point out, as others have done, that it is not at all clear exactly what Libet was asking his subjects to report. He indiscriminately describes what they were reporting as an urge, a wish, a desire, an intention, a decision, and a choice.
Neither an urge nor a wish nor a desire is identical with a choice I will assume that a choice is a decision or the intention that follows the making of a choice. An urge or a desire is the basis of a reason to choose, and while an agent is passive with respect to both the coming to have a desire and the reason to act that is based on it, a choice is a mental action.
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