LORD OF THE RINGS FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING PDF
IMAGE: SEVEN RINGS held aloft in triumph by the DWARF LORDS. GALADRIEL TEASING SHOTS: SAURON forging the ONE RING in the CHAMBERS of. part of The Lord of the Rings. The first part, The Fellowship The Two Towers. The Lord of the Rings Part 1 The Fellowship of the Ring By JRR Tolkien. J.R.R. Tolkien's trilogy The Lord of the Rings complete manuscript, which is longer than War and The Fellowship of the Ring picks up where The Hobbit left off.
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J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings is often erroneously called a trilogy The first volume, The Fellowship of the Ring, was published in Great Britain by the. View and download naturalswiss-csalas.info on DocDroid. “THE LORD OF THE RINGS' V*art One THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING J.R.R. ToIkien Complete Table of Contents Foreword Prologue 1. Concerning Hobbits.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Catholicism and Eucatastrophe in J. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. Catholicism and Eucatast Eucatastrophe in J. Examination Number:
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Catholicism and Eucatastrophe in J. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. Catholicism and Eucatast Eucatastrophe in J. Examination Number: B Name of Degree: Tolkien was a practicing Catholic for the duration of his life. Subsequent criticism has endeavoured to extract the Catholic elements out of these novels and to give form to any hidden religiosity.
This dissertation takes its leave from existent research, focusing on three central expressions of Catholicism in LOTR: Augustine of Hippo and Pope Pius X.
I would like to foremostly thank my parents for allowing me to draw upon their vast reserves of knowledge. Secondly, I would like to thank Dr. Catherine Oakes and Dr.
Tony Buxton for, unbeknownst to them, fomenting my opinions. An especial thanks goes to my supervisor, Dr. Sarah Dunnigan, whose encouragement gave me the confidence to pursue my own quests. Finally, to the Fellowship, for saving Middle Earth for the rest of us.
The Fellowship of the Ring TT: The Twin Towers RK: The Virgin Mary The Good Christian Nature and Environmentalism Sacred Music Grace and the Holy Spirit The Sacraments The Motif of the Journey The Civitas Dei and anti-Modernist Rhetoric: Pope Pius X So says Samwise Gamgee to Frodo Baggins at the nadir of the ring quest.
In their darkest hour, Sam reminds Frodo that despite the difficulty and despair of their situation, there is hope in the thought that their significance is not in themselves but as part of the greater importance of a larger story. The journey of Frodo and Sam reminds us that despite the trials and tribulations of our own lives, our significance is part of some greater scheme. For Tolkien, that greater scheme is a Catholic one.
After his father died when Tolkien was only three years old, his mother converted to Catholicism, following which she was ostracised by her family and sent into desperate poverty and ultimately, an untimely death. In fact, he writes explicitly in his foreword to LOTR: To Mrs.
Amongst the constituent authors of the Catholic Literary Revival, G. Chesterton, Hilaire Belloc, and Evelyn Waugh, style varied widely, but the Catholic elements of their novels are pronounced. Tolkien, like Greene, does not so easily fit into one distinction or the other. On the one hand, the ending of LOTR is a happy one, in which good triumphs over evil.
A suffering, it must be said, that Frodo never recovers from.
There are a pantheon of critics who have made a name for themselves in Tolkien studies, among them Humphrey Carpenter, Verlyn Flieger, Joseph Pearce, and T. Shippey being the most renowned. Part One: This book has provided a firm starting point for many of the discussions within this dissertation.
More recently, Paul E. Kerry has edited two collections of essays on this subject, The Ring and the Cross: Among these are the belief in a divine power, the congregation of groups of worship, theological and liturgical perspectives, priesthood, and within a Catholic context, sacramentalism. There is an early work on the theme of Catholicism in Tolkien that is now virtually lost, indeed neither Kerry nor any of the other critics here considered mention this text.
Lewis, J. Tolkien, T. Eliot and Dorothy Sayers with regards to the theology of St. The theme of Augustinianism in Tolkien is one that appears in the work of many authors including Jason Boffetti, Philip Mitchell Irving, and Jane Chance to name but a few. After this, it is widely agreed that T. Man and Myth originally published is the first major monograph on this theme Kerry, The Ring, Joseph Pearce, in his work Literary Giants, Literary Catholics , restated a case for reading Tolkien as part of wider Catholic intellectual currents.
As discussed in the introduction, in many ways Tolkien showed himself, like Greene, to be more alike the French Catholic literary revivalists than the English. The themes that Pearce suggests belong to Tolkien are au fait with those that Bosco attributes to the French Catholic revivalists, also recognised in Greene. On the subject of the sacraments and the Virgin Mother in LOTR there has been much debate, stemming not least of all from comments made by Tolkien in his letters.
James Lynch , Kath Filmer , Robert Murray in Boyd, and Adam Roberts in Eaglestone, all give compelling arguments for the manifest sacramental qualities of motifs such as the feast, lembas bread, and rings marriage in their essays. Without this crucial appreciation, indeed veneration, of the sacramental bond with the divine, the symbols and motifs inherent in LOTR could be merely Christian. With them, the origin of the religious influence on Tolkien can be derived as profoundly Catholic.
Biblical Narratives in The Lord of the Rings. Unlike his contemporary C. Lewis, allegory was for Tolkien the highest form of literary crassness. He wrote: Indeed, Tolkien provides a clear link between the Christian calendar and the major events of the Ring Quest.
The story begins with the burden of the Ring, which is conflated with the burden of the cross. Though these cycles are reversed, they perform the same function of revitalisation, moving from struggle to new life. That the sequence of events parallel the cycle of Christ is an obvious indication of the religious influence on the text, pointing towards the greater Catholic scheme. Christ Central to the worship of Christian denominations is the veneration of Christ, and in the central role that he plays in mimicking the journey of Jesus, Frodo is most often attributed with that symbolism.
He adds that the aid provided by Sam in the final moments of the quest is alike the aid provided by Simeon to Christ. However, on this I disagree with Caldecott, for it is not merely in these last moments that Frodo bears comparisons. At last with an effort he spoke, and wondered to hear his own words, as if some other will was using his small voice.
This episode is reminiscent of the reluctant Christ in Luke His hood and his grey rags were flung away. This symbolism illustrates another way in which LOTR resists allegorical interpretation, for Gandalf is both a Christ symbol and part of the angelic race of the Maiar.
The final part of this tripartite Christological symbolism is Aragorn. At the end of the books, Frodo and Sam go to King Aragorn and hardly recognize him as the man that they knew as Strider: As they drew near he rose. Similarly, it is in the coming together of Gandalf, Aragorn, and Frodo that Middle Earth is saved, and in this the Christological symbolism of LOTR functions as a means of showing that only the Son of God could be priest, prophet, and king in One.
Thus, Tolkien has constructed literary figures which both receive and resist the symbolism of Christ, thereby supporting the Catholic myth without detracting from the substance of the story itself. Whereas the figure of Christ is of universal importance to Christians, the Catholic perception of Mary is particular. Indeed, the significance of the Blessed Mother is important for Tolkien both as a Catholic and as a medievalist.
During the years Tolkien was Merton Professor of English Language and Literature, a role which allowed him to explore his love of medieval languages.
When we are first presented to Celeborn and Galadriel, they are like Gandalf after his resurrection, and the angels in the tomb of Christ: She read many hearts and desires. Like a mother who equips her children with the tools needed to survive and flourish, her gifts prove of pivotal importance to the success of the Ring Quest.
These same qualities, of divine beauty and practical aid, Galadriel shares with Goldberry in her brief entrances into the books. Though Goldberry is an elf, her partnership with Tom Bombadil in one sense paganises her. So where Galadriel professes the divine qualities of the Virgin, Goldberry promotes her natural ones.
In addition to the figures of Galadriel and Goldberry, Barbara Kowalik draws out the Marian identity of Elbereth, a divine figure whose name is regularly invoked during the ring quest in LOTR As a Catholic might invoke the Virgin through the Hail Mary, characters including Frodo and Aragorn regularly appeal to the name of Elbereth in times of need.
O Elbereth! In this, Galadriel and Elbereth are conflated within the symbol of an intercessory Virginal character. Middle Earth is a landscape blighted by the tug between good and evil, and though characters such as Frodo, Gandalf, Aragorn and Galadriel, Goldberry, and Elbereth foreshadow the Christian revelation in Christ, they are ultimately susceptible to temptation in their humanity. Neither Tolkien nor the Church expect us to be impervious to temptation. So the author gives us examples of other heroes who profess the qualities of a good Christian without the insinuated divinity of the aforementioned figures.
These framing narratives serve to give the reader a detailed understanding of the landscape of Middle Earth, acting as a kind of decryption tool for some of the moral messages in the text, and in this instance a focus is put upon the moral fibre of hobbits. Friendship and loyalty are of vital importance to the success of the Free Peoples, for Frodo would not have made it to Mount Doom without his Simeon, Sam Gamgee.
He stays with Frodo at the formation of the Fellowship at Rivendell: Mr Frodo, my dear! His actions reveal Sam to be a true hero of the books, committed to bearing the burden of his master and friend, and loyal until the end. Indeed, the books finish: He drew a deep breath. That being said, it would be remiss to gender the heroism of these novels. Central to a Catholic concern is that each person, both men and women, are responsible for their own actions, thus we are presented with female characters in the text who also conform to the ideals of the Christian hero.
In fact, Tolkien shows female love to be closer in kind to the love Christ teaches us. I have paid. In juxtaposition with Boromir, Eowyn also desires to pursue power. The Ring would otherwise never have allowed itself to be willingly thrown into the fires of Mount Doom. Nature and Environmentalism. The Catholic perception of nature is concentrated in the attitudes of the Free Peoples of Middle Earth, who seek to conserve and protect both the landscape and the people in it.
In the creation of the Ents, Tolkien is literally giving a voice to creation, and Treebeard is critical of those that do not love nature. Sacred Music Tolkien uses the motifs of music and light to emphasise the supernatural; Frodo experiences the conflation of the divine and earthly in the music of the elves of Lothlorien.
His perception is defined not only by the natural beauty of his surroundings, but the feeling it imposes on him: Though it is Frodo speaking, the reader gets a sense that Tolkien is speaking through him, attempting to explain the total otherworldliness of the elves to the reader. In this scene, we get a sense that there is something infinite and intuitive about music, then, beyond the formulaic, and manmade, constrains of language.
Frodo speaks in the past tense, as if the moment has passed by him, and this serves to show that music is transporting. Earlier in the book, whilst he is still at Rivendell, he experiences this kind of intercessory moment: As with his later experience at Lothlorien, the power of music is shown to be primordial in that it does not require language to produce an experience which is both altering and comprehensible on a fundamental level.
Indeed, there is no greater evidence for music being symbolic of a divine language in Middle Earth than the very fact that it was created out of the Music of the Ainur. The Ainur then sang the earth into existence, which was the primary will of Eru Illuvatar The use of lays throughout the three books give the reader a sense of the same experience felt by the hobbit, by transporting us to another time and creating metanarratives within the text.
In short, both are symbols of an omnipresent God. Throughout the books, light exists as a symbol of hope, the struggle of good over evil, and the endurance of good in the face of darkness. Just as light represents goodness and hope, darkness becomes darker around evil. Tolkien continues his lengthy description of the darkness: With each step that the hobbits take, Tolkien plunges us, the readers, deeper and deeper into the darkness with them through his long and lulling description.
This experience is in direct contrast to the joy we feel at music and light, it is deadening, monotonous and repetitive: But light saves Frodo and Sam; not only does it allow them to see, it also brings them hope: The marked impression of the renewing and eternal qualities of light in the elves and in the characters who display marks of the divine is therefore a religious experience in itself. Therefore, both music and light are intimately linked not only with divine creation, but the continued existence of the world.
In the final throws of the Ring Quest, Frodo fails. I will not do this deed. The Ring is mine! His weakness, combined with the pull of the diabolic, is nowhere more apparent than here.
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The wind motif is important not only to understanding the heavenly dimension of grace in LOTR, but also the traditional Catholic symbolism attached to the Holy Spirit, which is regularly figured in elemental terms in Scripture Hartley, The Sacraments The sacraments are a fundamental element of what distinguishes Catholicism as a Christian denomination, indeed 'the whole liturgical life of the Church revolves around the Eucharistic sacrifice and the sacraments' Church, Catechism, I: They are defined by the Church as ' "powers that comes forth" from the Body of Christ [ Included in the sacraments are Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Matrimony, and the Holy Orders, and each are addressed to larger and lesser degrees within the confines of Middle Earth.
According to the Catechism, '"the sacraments make the Church," since they manifest and communicate to men, above all in the Eucharist' Church, Catechism, I: Though each sacrament is of equal and vital importance to Catholic life, the Eucharist provides an especial function in that it is not taken once in a lifetime but weekly: This has led some critics to view lembas bread, the bread given to the Fellowship by the elves, as representative of the Eucharist Boffetti.
On one point we can be clear, it is not an allegorical representation of the Eucharist, as it predates the coming of Christ and his crucifixion. The Catholic belief in transubstantiation fully recognises the Eucharist as the Body and Blood of Christ, therefore this is what lembas bread is not.
In this sense, lembas foreshadows the Eucharist and is an iteration of its vital nature. Though Frodo does not sacrifice himself in one final gesture, by undertaking a quest of mammoth proportions the world that he salvages is no longer for him. I tried to save the Shire, and it has been saved, but not for me. It must often be so, Sam, when things are in danger: Tolkien compounds the Christological sentiments expressed in the character of Frodo, by enacting a symbolic sacrifice.
But importantly, the message of going to the Grey Havens is one of endurance and immortality as opposed to finality. The passing of Frodo, Bilbo and the Elves is from one state literally, geographically speaking to another.
The Motif of the Journey. The symbolism and motifs of Catholicism that I have here discussed lead me to make my final assertion, which is an entirely new reading of Catholic presence in LOTR.
In the previous chapter, a statement was made as to the proliferation of characters which display the virtues of a good Christian.
Likewise, at the heart of the Catholic understanding of what it means to be a follower of God is the pathway to salvation, as seen in the journey of the sacraments. His earthly life, the mystery of His crucifixion, and His coming in glory as the King of Heaven.
In The Fellowship of the Ring, Frodo plays a central role in the formation of the Fellowship and the Ring Quest; in his innocence and goodness of character, he impresses wiser characters such as Gandalf and Elrond through what he offers as a teacher of the Christian virtues of selflessness and generosity of spirit that Jesus taught as a young man.
Moreover, he is the physical size of a young boy which is a manifestation of the innocence and naivety of the hobbits but also symbolic of adolescence. The Two Towers is then concerned with the resurrection of Gandalf, and in this book he takes on the lead in determining the course of events.
In this sense, TT presents the strange events surrounding the crucifixion of Christ and the reassembling of scattered Christian forces following the chaos of his sacrifice.
Finally, in The Return of the King we are introduced to the prospect of Christ coming in glory, recognised in the figure of Aragorn. Through this reading, the motif of the journey can be reasserted as central to an understanding of the overall meaning of the books.
The journey allows us to struggle against the diabolical and move towards grace, which is depicted literally in the novels, for as Frodo journeys, he moves closer to both Mordor and to his ultimate salvation, depicted in his being stripped of the Ring and the coming of the eagles.
Catholic Theologies and The Lord of the Rings. Hitherto, the discussion of this dissertation has focused primarily on an understanding of the manifest Catholic symbolism of LOTR. In this chapter, I will set out the principles of two Catholic philosophers whose work impacted upon Tolkien and his novels.
Augustinianism During the first half of the twentieth century, nature and grace became the focal point of both the Vatican and lay Catholic philosophers Mitchell, The principles of the Neo-Thomist and Augustinian schools of thought came to the fore and subsequently, Catholic intellectuals such as Tolkien were confronted with these philosophies.
Many critics have considered the association between Tolkien and Augustine, notably Charles Moorman in his work The Precincts of Felicity. The Fellowship is composed of four hobbits, a wizard, an elf, a dwarf, and two men, and in its multiracial assemblage, the Fellowship recognises the Augustinian notion of people of all backgrounds coming together for universal success.
Neo-Thomism was so branded under his rule in direct response to, what Catholics perceived to be, the woes of the Enlightenment. On September 1st, , Pius X issued Sacrorum antistitum: Tolkien would have been 18 at the time, but just a few years previous, whilst he was still under the guardianship of Father Francis, Pius X had issued the encyclicals Lamentabili and Pascendi dominici gregis against the 'faith corrupting force' of Modernism Bossert, 53 ; the Pope's stance was aggressive and uncompromising.
These formative doctrines were monumental in the effort of shaping Catholic attitudes towards modernity, not only for clerics but for lay people also. He argued thus that it is the duty of Catholics to conserve traditional modes of existence, against which he places other Christian denominations. Given Tolkien's devotion and closeness to his faith and his clerical guardian, we can be sure that these were ideas that he was not only susceptible to but also responsive towards.
The veneration of the natural world is something that I have touched upon in earlier parts of this dissertation, specifically in the contexts of Marian devotion and environmentalism. In direct contrast to the Free People of Middle Earth, whose faith remains in the supernatural facets of Middle Earth, stands the Armies of Sauron and in particular, his lieutenant Saruman.
Beware of his voice! He has a mind of metal and wheels; and he does not care for growing things, except as far as they serve him for the moment. Saruman therefore represents not only modernity and science, but the rejection of God. Verily, the members of the Fellowship are characterised by the strength of their will and the courage of their convictions and at the end, even the elves and the dwarves enter the Fourth Age as reconciled peoples Moorman, Email to friends Share on Facebook - opens in a new window or tab Share on Twitter - opens in a new window or tab Share on Pinterest - opens in a new window or tab.
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The Lord of the Rings
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